Monday, December 21, 2009

Recombinant DNA and Biotecnology

Biotechnology is an industrial process that uses the scientific research on DNA for practical benefits. Biotechnology is synonymous with genetic engineering because the genes of an organism are changed during the process and the DNA of the organism is recombined. Recombinant DNA and biotechnology can be used to form proteins not normally produced in a cell. In addition, bacteria that carry recombinant DNA can be released into the environment to increase the fertility of the soil, serve as an insecticide, or relieve pollution.

Tools of biotechnology.

The basic process of recombinant DNA technology revolves around the activity of DNA in the synthesis of protein. By intervening in this process, scientists can change the nature of the DNA and of the gene make-up of an organism. By inserting genes into the genome of an organism, the scientist can induce the organism to produce a protein it does not normally produce.

The technology of recombinant DNA has been made possible in part by extensive research on microorganisms during the last century. One important microorganism in recombinant DNA research is Escherichia coli (E. coli). The biochemistry and genetics of E. coli are well known, and its DNA has been isolated and made to accept new genes. The DNA can then be forced into fresh cells of E. coli, and the bacteria will begin to produce the proteins specified by the foreign genes. Such altered bacteria are said to have been transformed.

Interest in recombinant DNA and biotechnology heightened considerably in the 1960s and 1970s with the discovery of restriction enzymes. These enzymes catalyze the opening of a DNA molecule at a “restricted” point, regardless of the DNA's source. Moreover, certain restriction enzymes leave dangling ends of DNA molecules at the point where the DNA is open. (The most commonly used restriction enzyme is named EcoRl.) Foreign DNA can then be combined with the carrier DNA at this point. An enzyme called DNA ligase is used to form a permanent link between the dangling ends of the DNA molecules at the point of union
The production of a a recombined bacterium using a gene from a foreign donor and the synthesis of protein encoded by the recombinant DNA molecule.

The genes used in DNA technology are commonly obtained from host cells or organisms called gene libraries. A gene library is a collection of cells identified as harboring a specific gene. For example, E. coli cells can be stored with the genes for human insulin in their chromosomes.

Pharmaceutical products.

Gene defects in humans can lead to deficiencies in proteins such as insulin, human growth hormone, and Factor VIII. These protein deficiencies may lead to problems such as diabetes, dwarfism, and impaired blood clotting, respectively. Missing proteins can now be replaced by proteins manufactured through biotechnology. For insulin production, two protein chains are encoded by separate genes in plasmids inserted into bacteria. The protein chains are then chemically joined to form the final insulin product. Human growth hormone is also produced within bacteria, but special techniques are used because the bacteria do not usually produce human proteins. Therapeutic proteins produced by biotechnology include a clot-dissolving protein called tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and interferon. This antiviral protein is produced within E. coli cells. Interferon is currently used against certain types of cancers and for certain skin conditions.

Vaccines represent another application of recombinant DNA technology. For instance, the hepatitis B vaccine now in use is composed of viral protein manufactured by yeast cells, which have been recombined with viral genes. The vaccine is safe because it contains no viral particles. Experimental vaccines against AIDS are being produced in the same way.

Diagnostic testing.

Recombinant DNA and biotechnology have opened a new era of diagnostic testing and have made detecting many genetic diseases possible. The basic tool of DNA analyses is a fragment of DNA called the DNA probe. A DNA probe is a relatively small, single-stranded fragment of DNA that recognizes and binds to a complementary section of DNA in a complex mixture of DNA molecules. The probe mingles with the mixture of DNA and unites with the target DNA much like a left hand unites with the right. Once the probe unites with its target, it emits a signal such as radioactivity to indicate that a reaction has occurred.

To work effectively, a sufficiently large amount of target DNA must be available. To increase the amount of available DNA, a process called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used. In a highly automated machine, the target DNA is combined with enzymes, nucleotides, and a primer DNA. In geometric fashion, the enzymes synthesize copies of the target DNA, so that in a few hours billions of molecules of DNA exist where only a few were before.

Using DNA probes and PCR, scientists are now able to detect the DNA associated with HIV (and AIDS), Lyme disease, and genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, and fragile X syndrome.

Gene therapy.

Gene therapy is a recombinant DNA process in which cells are taken from the patient, altered by adding genes, and replaced in the patient, where the genes provide the genetic codes for proteins the patient is lacking.

In the early 1990s, gene therapy was used to correct a deficiency of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA). Blood cells called lymphocytes were removed from the bone marrow of two children; then genes for ADA production were inserted into the cells using viruses as vectors. Finally, the cells were reinfused to the bodies of the two children. Once established in the bodies, the gene-altered cells began synthesizing the enzyme ADA and alleviated the deficiency.

Gene therapy has also been performed with patients with melanoma (a virulent skin cancer). In this case, lymphocytes that normally attack tumors are isolated in the patients and treated with genes for an anticancer protein called tumor necrosis factor. The genealtered lymphocytes are then reinfused to the patients, where they produce the new protein which helps destroy cancer cells. Approximately 2000 single-gene defects are believed to exist, and patients with these defects may be candidates for gene therapy.

DNA fingerprinting.

The use of DNA probes and the development of retrieval techniques have made it possible to match DNA molecules to one another for identification purposes. This process has been used in a forensic procedure called DNA fingerprinting.

The use of DNA fingerprinting depends upon the presence of repeating base sequences that exist in the human genome. The repeating sequences are called restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). As the pattern of RFLPs is unique for every individual, it can be used as a molecular fingerprint. To perform DNA fingerprinting, DNA is obtained from an individual's blood cells, hair fibers, skin fragments, or other tissue. The DNA is extracted from the cells and digested with enzymes. The resulting fragments are separated by a process called electrophoresis. These separated DNA fragments are tested for characteristic RFLPs using DNA probes. A statistical evaluation enables the forensic pathologist to compare a suspect's DNA with the DNA recovered at a crime scene and to assert with a degree of certainty (usually 99 percent) that the suspect was at the crime scene.

DNA and agriculture.

Although plants are more difficult to work with than bacteria, gene insertions can be made into single plant cells, and the cells can then be cultivated to form a mature plant. The major method for inserting genes is through the plasmids of a bacterium called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This bacterium invades plant cells, and its plasmids insert into plant chromosomes carrying the genes for tumor induction. Scientists remove the tumor-inducing genes and obtain a plasmid that unites with the plant cell without causing any harm.

Recombinant DNA and biotechnology have been used to increase the efficiency of plant growth by increasing the efficiency of the plant's ability to fix nitrogen. Scientists have obtained the genes for nitrogen fixation from bacteria and have incorporated those genes into plant cells. By obtaining nitrogen directly from the atmosphere, the plants can synthesize their own proteins without intervention of bacteria as normally needed.

DNA technology has also been used to increase plant resistance to disease. The genes for an insecticide have been obtained from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and inserted into plants to allow them to resist caterpillars and other pests. In addition, plants have been reengineered to produce the capsid protein that encloses viruses. These proteins lend resistance to the plants against viral disease.

The human genome.

One of the most ambitious scientific endeavors of the twentieth century was the effort to sequence the nitrogenous bases in the human genome. Begun in 1990 and completed in 2003, the effort encompassed 13 years of work at a cost of approximately $3 billion. Knowing the content of the human genome is helping researchers devise new diagnostics and treatments for genetic diseases and will also be of value to developmental biologists, evolutionary biologists, and comparative biologists.

In addition to learning the genome of humans, the project has also studied numerous bacteria. By 1995, the genomes of two bacteria had been completely deciphered ( Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma genitalium), and by 1996, the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was known. The Human Genome Project is one of colossal magnitude that will have an impact on many branches of science for decades to come. The project remains the crowning achievement of DNA research in the twentieth century and the bedrock for research in the twenty-first.

Read more:,articleId-8439.html#ixzz0aRDdRxUP

Friday, November 6, 2009

Fundamentals of A Happy Marriage

Faith: The most basic and essential attribute of a Muslim marriage is the common faith that binds the couple.

Since Islam is a way of life and not just a religion confined to weekly worship it becomes an integral part of a Muslim's life. The frame of reference shared by the couple eases communication and sharing of values which is not possible in an interfaith marriage. It is highly recommended that faith play an important role in the developing a loving relationship.

For example, as the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said, that when a husband feeds his wife, he gets a reward for this act and Allah increases the bond of love between them. So when we love each other for the sake of Allah WE ACTUALLY INCREASE OUR FAITH.

Forgiving: When the Prophet Muhammad asked his Companions ‘do you wish that Allah should forgive you' they said, of course O Prophet of Allah. He responded, ‘then forgive each other'. One of the main components of a happy marriage is that the spouses are able to forgive, that they do not hold grudges or act judgmental towards each other. It is expected that when we live with someone, situations may arise when we end up saying or doing things that hurt our spouses. The challenge is not to dwell on it or lay blame but to move past it. This can only happen if we are not too proud to ask for forgiveness and we are not stingy to forgive.

If we expect Allah to forgive us than we must learn to forgive.

Forget: When we constantly remind our spouses of all the times they let us down or hurt us we have not truly forgiven. Things that happened in the past must be left there and not be used as fresh ammunition in new situations. Couples who use this technique usually fall in a rut and become victims of their own pettiness, unable to break free.

Forbearance: Sabr (patience) is the most useful tool to have in managing a healthy lifestyle. Being patient and forbearing puts us in a proactive frame of mind it brings us closer to Allah through Tawakul and reliance .We develop an inner mechanism that empowers us to handle life's difficult moments. As Allah states in Surah al-Asr: "Surely by time humans are at loss, except those who believe and do righteous deeds and counsel each other to the truth and counsel each other to Sabr' (Quran, chapter 103).

Flexible: Many couples unnecessarily make themselves miserable because they are unwilling to bend a little.

We should not expect our spouses to be our extensions. They are their own selves with personalities, likes and dislikes. We must respect their right to be them selves as long as it does not compromise their Deen (religion). Being inflexible and not accommodating for individual differences leads to a very stressful and tense home atmosphere.

Friendship: This aspect of marriage has three components.

First is to develop a friendship with our spouses.The relationship based on friendship is more able to withstand outside pressures.

We honor, trust, respect, accept and care for our friends, in spite of our differences. These are the aspects of friendship we should bring to our marriages.

Unfortunately the only aspect that people think of bringing to their marriage which is highly inappropriate is the buddy scenario. Shariah (Islamic law) has placed the husband in a leadership role within a family. This requires a certain decorum, which cannot be maintained if the spouses consider each other as pals.

This should not be taken to mean that husband is a dictator but a shepherd who is responsible for and to his flock. This is a position of grave responsibility and places an enormous burden on the husband. Further more the children need to see their parents as friends but not as pals as this encourages disrespect.

Friendly: Second aspect of friendship is to have friendly relations with in-laws. When couples compete as to whose parents are more important it becomes a constant source of grief. Much valuable time is wasted trying to convince, one another of whose parents are most desirable. It is better if we accept, that our spouses will not overnight fall in love with our parents just because we want them to. As long as they maintain friendly relations that are cordial and based on mutual respect we should not force the issue.

Friends: The third aspect of friendship is our circle of friends. It is okay to have individual friends of the same gender but couples must also make effort to have family friends so that they can socialize together. If there is friction being caused by a certain friendship it must not be pursued at the expense of the marriage. Prophet Muhammad advised us to choose God fearing people as friends since we tend to follow their way. Friends should be a source of joy and not mischief.

Fun: Couples that do not laugh together have to work on sharing some fun times. The Prophet was known to play with his wives. A simple walk in the park can add much spark to the relationship. Taking up a sport together or watching clean funny movies is another way of sharing a laugh.

Faithful: It is commanded by Allah that we be faithful to our spouses. Adultery is a capital crime in Islam that is punishable by death. However there are various forms of unfaithful behavior prevalent among some Muslims.

The most common form is maintaining friendships with the opposite sex over the boundaries set by Islam, and the misgivings of the spouse. The latest trend of Internet relationships is also contrary to Islamic Adab (etiquette) and is causing serious problems between couples. Once a sense of betrayal sets in, repairing that relationship is difficult. Another form of not being faithful is when couples betray confidences. This is a trust issue and one when compromised eats away at the heart of a marriage.

Fair: Usually when we are angry or displeased the tendency is to not play fair. We try to convince ourselves that since we have been wronged it is okay to be unjust in our behavior and our statements. Allah states in the Quran do not be unjust under any circumstances, even if they be your enemy, and here we are talking about our life partners and the parent of our children. To use words such as "never" and "always" when describing the behavior of the partner is unfair and puts the other on the defensive.

Finance: One of the most common points of contention in marriages is money. Experts tell us that 80 percent of marital conflicts are about money.

It is therefore highly recommended that the couple put serious time and effort in developing a financial management plan that is mutually agreeable and is reviewed every six months or so. Preparing a budget together is also a helpful and wise way to handling household finances. It should be remembered that the wife's money in Islam is hers to do with as she pleases and therefore should not be considered family income unless she chooses to contribute it to the family

Family: Parenting can be a stressful experience if the parents are not well informed. This in turn can put extra pressure on the marriage.

Sometimes couples are naive about the changes that come in the lifestyle. This can cause in some cases depression and in some resentment and misunderstandings. One golden rule that must always be the guide is; that family comes first.

Whenever there is evidence that the family is not happy or not our first priority it is time to assemble at the kitchen table and discuss with open hearts and mind. Couples who have elderly parents have an added responsibility to take care of them. This can also be very stressful if the couple is not prepared.

A care plan must be worked out with respective siblings and parents as to who will be the primary care giver and what type of support network they will have. In case of mental incompetence a power of attorney must be in place. The making of a will is most essential .

Feelings: Prophet Muhammad stated that Allah forgives all sins if we repent but not those we have committed against others i.e. hurt their feelings unless the person we have hurt forgives first.

Couples are sometimes very careless when it comes to their spouse's feelings, they take them for granted and assume that the other knows what they mean. It is surprising that people are more sensitive and courteous to strangers than they are to their loved ones. One must be ever vigilant and careful that they do not hurt the feelings of their spouses and if they invariably do, they should apologize as soon as possible. Since one does not know when someone they love will leave this world, is it not better to make amends when we have the time?

Freedom: Marriage in Islam is a partnership and not bondage or slavery. To consider the wife one's property is alien to Islamic concept of husband and wife role. The team spirit is enhanced and not curtailed when members of the team are free to be themselves. Freedom in the common western since is to be free to do as one pleases or to be selfish. On the contrary, to allow freedom to one's spouse is to be considerate of their needs and to recognize their limitations.

Flirtation: A sure way to keep romance in marriage is to flirt with your spouse. Many successful marriages have maintained a youthful demeanor in their marriages by adopting special names for each other and secret communication styles.

Frank: Misunderstandings happen when couples are not honest with each other. Marital relationship is where the partners must feel safe to speak their mind with due consideration to the other's feeling, without compromising their own views. When the communication is not frank it hinders in the development of closeness and deep understanding of each other's inner self.

Facilitator: When choosing our life partner, we must, as the Prophet advised, look for a pious Muslim. The reason is that their first and foremost goal is the pleasure of Allah. This commitment to Allah makes them an excellent facilitator for enhancing their partner's spiritual development. In essence, the couple facilitates their family's commitment to Allah and His Deen.

Flattering: Paying compliments and indulging in honest flattery is a very inexpensive way to win your spouse's heart. Everyone likes to be appreciated and noticed. So being stingy about compliments is actually depriving oneself of being appreciated in return.

Fulfilling: To be all one can be to one's spouse is a very fulfilling and rewarding experience. To be in love means to give one's all. The heart does not put conditions or make stipulations. It gives without expecting anything in return, but such selfless giving is always rewarded tenfold.

Fallible: It often happens that our expectations sometimes are so high that we lose focus of the fact that we are fallible beings. When couples start to nitpick and demand the impossible they must remind themselves that only Allah is perfect.

Fondness: So many times couples fail to work on developing fondness for each other by [failing] to see their spouses as people through the eyes of their respective friends. Spending quality time alone doing and sharing activities are ways in which one can develop fondness.

Future: Smart couples plan for their future together. They work on their financial and retirement plans, make wills and discuss these plans with their children. This provides peace of mind and secures the relationship.

by Shahina Siddiqui

When Life Is Too Good..

When life is too good.. jalan dakwah yg kita lalui tak ada masalah,semuanya lancar… kita kurang waspada. Maybe ada perkara2 yg halus yg kita terlupa, terleka… ujub misalnya. Dr. majdi says (in his book; Adakah Berhala Pada Diri Anda?), dalam kita dok bekerja bersungguh2 tu, dalam kita dok sedaya upaya menjadi yg terbaik, berkali2 Allah jatuhkan kita, bertubi2 kita dilemahkan.. ada sebabnya. Maybe ada penyakit dalam hati kita yg Allah nk sembuhkan…

Seorang pelajar yg diberikan anugerah pemahaman dan kekuatan hafalan oleh Allah bisa jatuh dalam penyakit ini, jika ia meyakini bahawa dalam dirinya ada kemampuan internal untuk memahami dan menghafal

Wanita yang pandai memasak juga bisa jatuh dalam penyakit seperti ini, jika ia meyakini kemampuannya untuk memasak makanan tersebut bila pun yg ia mahu..

Sama juga dengan guru yang meyakini kemampuannya untuk mengajarkan sesuatu pelajaran berdasarkan kemampuan dan pengalaman mengajarnya ang panjang..

Seorang daie yang memberikan nasihat kepada manusia, sehingga mereka terpengaruh dengan ceramahnya, juga bisa terjatuh dalam penyakit seperti ini..

Sama juga semua org yg menyangka bahawa dalam diri mereka ada kemampuan yang tidak di miliki oleh org lain, sebesar apapn kelebihan itu… maka dalam hatinya ada penyakit iaitu ujub

Jika anda megatakan, ‘tapi semua kelebihan itu mmg benar2 ada pada diri saya, dan sy tidak lihat ada org lain yg memiliki kelebihan yg sama..’

Itu mmg benar, dalam diri kita semua mmg ada sesuatu yg tidak terdapat dalam diri orglain. Tetapi semua itu milik siapa?

Allah berfirman, ‘Kepunyaan Allah lah kerajaan langit dan bumi, dan apa yg ada di dalamnya’ (al-kahfi:7)

Thursday, October 8, 2009

UNESCO donuts

Sunday, September 13, 2009

25 checklist questions..

Ramadan, as usual, has flown by. Despite planning beforehand, many of us may have gotten caught up in a routine after accustoming ourselves to the change in schedule the blessed month brings.

This may have affected our initial plans to increase our worship, contemplation and to seek Allah's Forgiveness and Mercy with greater fervor. But the last ten days and nights of Ramadan are still ahead for us to benefit from. Ask yourself these questions and see what you can do to make the most of what's left of Ramadan this year, Insha Allah.

1. Have I kept pace with the amount of Quran I wanted to read, or have I fallen behind?

2. If so, how much do I have to read on a daily basis the rest of Ramadan to catch up?

3. Have I tried to attend Tarawih regularly, or did I use weak excuses to get out of it?

4. Did I ever pray the night prayer?

5. Did I try praying my five daily prayers with more sincerity, concentration, and focus than usual?

6. Did I invite anyone over for Iftar (breaking the fast)?

7. Did I help any needy person, even a panhandler or beggar, when I was fasting?

8. Did I regularly seek Allah's Forgiveness and Mercy with sincerity, fear and hope?

9. Did I encourage my family to fast or participate in regular opportunities for more rewards that come with Ramadan (i.e. good deeds in general, but also Tarawih, more reading of the Quran, etc.).

10. Did I memorize any more Quran than what I knew before Ramadan started?

11. Did I try to be more patient in Ramadan than I normally am?

12. Did I try to control my anger, especially while fasting?

13. Did I try harder to avoid backbiting and slander?

14. Did I constantly check my intentions, to make sure that my good deeds were for the sake of Allah alone, not to impress others, gain their favor, or to show off?

15. Was there even an atom of pride in my heart?

16. Was I quieter and more contemplative?

17. Did I cry in my prayers?

18. Did I read more Islamic literature apart from the Quran?

19. Did I make sincere repentance to Allah, really feeling sorry for my sins?

20. Did I forgive those who hurt me?

21. Did I avoid hurting anyone with my attitude, words, intentions or actions?

22. Did I give any more Sadaqah (charity) than I normally give?

23. Did I share the message of Ramadan and Islam with a non-Muslim?

24. Did I share the message of Ramadan and Islam with a non-practicing Muslim family member or friend?

25. Did I feel annoyed at being hungry while fasting or did I rejoice?

Poem: I ask myself tonight

"Oh how swiftly, it's mid-Ramadan now
I sit here, wondering and thinking how,
Have I spent my first days of Ramadan fruitfully?
Or have I wasted the time unknowingly?"


Ramadhan comes, for a short month it's here
Will I ever meet the Ramadan next year?
Allah Oh Allah, help me guide my heart through
For only You know, if I've devoted enough to You."

May Allah strengthen our heart in the remaining days of Ramadhan to be able to answer yes to all the questions. Thank you. Assalamualaikum.

Doa Penerang Hati

“Ya Allah, keluarkan aku dari kegelapan yang ragu-ragu, kurniai aku dengan sinaran kefahaman, bukakanlah bagiku pintu ilmu dan hiasilah aku dengan akhlak yang baik dan kasih sayang.
Ya Allah, sinarilah hatiku dengan cahaya hidayahMu seperti Engkau menyinari bumi dan langit dengan rahmatMu ya Allah yang Maha Pengasih dan Penyayang.

Friday, July 24, 2009

BioNik - Something About Protein

Aku tengah sediakan nota utk my students.. after 4 months, at last, aku dapat start mengajar and have my own students. So aku kene baca balik semua nota2 yang berkenaan since aku dah tinggalkan teks book for the last 4 month. Hm. Dpat gak la aku bayangkan betapa dasyatnya student aku berperang dgn kebosanan melampau utk hafal all the facts dalam text book tu. Semoga Allah mudahkan ilmu untuk mereka. Aku yang dah bacateks book tu berpuluh-puluh kali pun still rasa agak tertekan. But then, knp aku suka bio?

Masa kat skolah dulu, aku kenal bio as a subject full of facts, similar to subjek sejarah. Just hafal everything to score. Tak dapat dinafikan, mmg sekarang pn aku still give that advice to my students, HAFAL. Hafalan mmg penting dalam mana2 subjek pun. Tp yg bezanya, if ure memorizing sth you love rather than sth u have no idea of… that’s a big different. Biology is full of wonders.. full of things that will make you amazed, awed.. in some way, biology can be sth that makes u close to Allah, makes u realize Allah’s great blessings for us. U re only gonna think that way, when u really pay attention in what u learn. I mean, u cant simply appreciate sth if u don’t really know them. Rite? In a nutshell, PAY ATTENTION IN CLASS! DON’T SLEEP! L.O.L!!

Just kidding.

Here one simple bio story.

Proteins = biological machine; benda yg buat semua kerja dalam badan kita. Protein terlibat dalam semua proses dalam badan… membesar, melihat, bercakap, bergerak.. EVERYTHING! Salah satu cth ringkas, ialah utk bergerak

UTK bergerak, kita semua kene makan untuk dapat tenaga. dan our essential bahan asas utk tenaga ialah glucose (sth u find in nasi, ubi, roti…). This glucose (atau nama kampungnya, gula ringkas) contain lots of energy, ready to be converted and transferred to ATP (the molecule that carry and distribute energy to other parts of our body). ATP hantar energy ni ke merata-rata, ke otot, otak, tulang, jantung… supaya organ2 ni sume bleh berfungsi dgh baik. Too much eating nasi, all the excessive glucose will be converted into glycogen, sth that can be kept and used again when needed. The conversion is made by a biological machine called protein insulin.

Glycogen are kept in liver. When too much glycogen is kept in liver, sampai la tak muat nk simpan dah.. glycogen ni akan kena tukar jadi fat…(by another protein). Fat ni disimpan kat sejenis tisu namanya adipose tissue. Adipose tisu ni terletak kat byk tempat dalam badan.. kat perut, bwh kulit.. parts that makes u look fat (L.O.L).

So the thing is, insulin must convert excessive glucose into glycogen… if not, glucose terlalu banyak dalam badan, maka terjadilah suatu masalah yg kita panggil sbg PENYAKIT KENCING MANIS. (pening dah ke?)

How our body build this important INSULIN?

Protein is made by another bio-machine called ribosome. Ribosome will get information (mcm manual mesin la..) how to build specific protein. this information is taken from the headquater of cell, the NUCLEUS. NUclues keep all the codes (information) to build all types protein needed by the whole body.

This is the code yg perlu utk hasilkan 1 biji INSULIN.. badan kita hasilkan berjuta2 insulin. (the 2 double rows of alphabets)

Dalam badan kita ada more than 20 000 different types protein (salah satunya insulin). Some of them are bigger and some are smaller… imagine how long the code would be needed to build all these proteins?
You’ll need thousands of books to write those codes and put them on shelves mcm kat library… but Allah build all of the codes and compact them into our every tiny cell (which we can’t even see with our naked eyes?)

THE END of my lecture...
Goodluck everybody. Mina Gambatte!

“We have indeed created man in the best of molds. Then do We abase him (to be) the lowest of the low. Except such as believe and do righteous deeds: for they shall have a reward unfailing” (AT-Tin:4-6)

Friday, June 5, 2009

Crying is Healthy !!

As far as we know, human beings are the only creatures that shed tears. Although crying is a universal human experience that appears in every culture throughout history, we understand very little about this mysterious phenomenon. Traumatic events, prolonged stress, loneliness, loss, pain, and simple daily hassles often trigger crying.

Yet, most people have also cried tears of happiness, joy, and relief. How often and for what reasons people weep are influenced by many factors including gender, age, perceptions of events, societal attitudes, health, personality characteristics, and so on. Curiously, we have learned more about weeping from poetry, fiction, and movies than from medical and psychological studies. However,these scientific studies provide strong and consistent evidence that crying is linked to significant health benefits.

Biomedical researchers have identified four biological mechanisms that function as catalysts influencing the amount of tears we will shed at a given time: genetic influences,dietary factors, hormone levels and circadian rhythms (we are more likely to cry if we are sleep deprived and at certain times of day). Once the tear switch is flipped a complex interplay of psychological and neurobiological processes allow tears to flow. We really know very little about the precise psychological and biological processes that initiate an episode of crying or when it will stop. However, recent biological studies offer strong clues to how and why crying is related to health benefits.

Commonly, people report they feel some sense of relief after a bout of crying. There is general agreement that there is a significant increase in the number, type and amount of stress hormones released in our bodies prior to crying. Consistently, researchers find that tears contain stress hormones. This is a critical finding since we know stress hormones cause damage to virtually all bodily systems. During the last decade, stress hormones have been shown to cause serious damage to brain cells. Stress hormones have seem to target specific parts of the brain including the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and pre-frontal cortex. Unfortunately, stress hormones attack the very brain sites implicated in the perpetuation of mood disorders. As a result, stress hormones damage the exact sites capable of reducing or eliminating the release of the toxic stress hormones.

Finally, extensive biomedical studies demonstrate that stress hormones negatively affect virtually every system in the body including the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. It is clear that crying is a primary way for the body to eliminate harmful stress hormones. Thus, crying is a natural and essential biological function that results in the elimination of stress hormones connected to every imaginable stress related health problem. The 21st century has started by removing any doubt about the positive health effects of crying.

Is it any wonder that people so often report feeling relieved after a good cry ? From a public health perspective, it is obvious that the general public would benefit from a campaign to eliminate all stigma associated with crying awareness so everyone can benefit from the innumerable positive health effects of crying.

Practitioner's of folk wisdom have routinely encouraged people to allow themselves to cry comforting the suffering soul that ' a good cry will help you feel better'.
(Dr.Kevin Keough)

Saturday, May 2, 2009

Resipi Piza :P


bahan2 roti:
500g tepung gandum
11g yis
1 gelas air (dibancuh dgn 1 sudu teh gula dan 1 sudu teh garam)

bahan topping:
1/2kilo daging (potong halus2)
5biji tomato (direbus dan dilenyek)
3 bawang putih (potong kecik2)
1 bawang besar (potong kecik2)
1 sudu lada hitam (tumbuk)
1 sudu madu
1 sudu teh garam
1 sudu teh gula
1 tin cendawan butang (potong 4)
1 tin nenas (potong kecik2)
1 mangkuk mix vege
sos tomato
sos cili
cheese 1 peket (sagat bagi hancur)

cara buat inti (buat inti dulu):
1.perap daging dgn 1 sudu teh garan, 1 sudu teh gula, madu dan lada hitam 1jam
2.panaskan kuali, buh minyak masak (lbh kurg 4sudu besar)
3.tumis bawang putih dan bawang besar smpai wangi
4. masuk daging.. goreng kejap..
5. masuk tomato.. gaul
6.masuk sos tomato, sos cili.. ikut sedap rasa
7. tambah cendawan..tambah air sikit.. biar 10 minit
8.rasa, tambah la garam atau gula sesedap rasa masing2..:p
9.tutup api bila daging dah empuk
10.bubuh atas doh yang dah siap
11. tabur nenas, mix vege oregano.. then lastly cheese..

cara buat doh:
1.campur tepung dgn yis dalam mangkuk besar
2.tambah air yang dibancuh, then uli la.. smpai jd doh
3.biar dia kembang
4.dah kembang, bahagi dua, uli bagi leper
5. letak atasbekas pembakar yang dah di gris

bila da siap, panaskan oven 180darjah. bakar 30 minit

baca bismillah sebelum makan...

Tuesday, April 28, 2009


Going to bookfair has been my annual hobby.. last week i manage to be there as part of my offcial job to do listing for collage libary.. it was fun!!! just take any books.. and the supplier will do the billing. im enjoying the excitement so much.. if only i could grab one for myself...huhu.. off the budget...

Sunday, April 19, 2009

Thank You Teacher by Nik Nazifah

After about a week waiting for the results, at last, here they are! The class’ teacher, Mrs. Rozita, was handing out our exam results. There was an intense atmosphere in the class.

“Where are my results?” I whispered to myself. My heart was pumping fast.

“Abdul Rahman!” Spontaneosly I stood up and walked over to the teacher’s desk.The teacher took a look at my results and she smiled widely.

“Congratulations, I’m very proud of you.”

The smile she had on her face made me remind of a teacher, who had made me felt special and appreciated. I still remember that day. It was two years ago, when I was in the last year of primary school.

The sky was grey as it was about to rain. The pupils got into their classes to start
the lessons but not me. I was resting under a tree, somewhere that I thought the teachers could not find me. But it was an unlucky day.

“Why aren’t you in class yet?” I recognized the voice. Puan Kavita, the school headmistress, gave me a shock. There was an unpleasent expression on her face. She pulled my ear and dragged me to the staff room.

In her office, Puan Kavita stared at me. It was totally uncomfortable like she was
about to swollow me. I tried to avoid her eyes but I could feel her steaming anger
all around me and it made me sweat.

“Why are you behaving like this? Do you have a problem, Rahman?” she broke the silence. I turned my head down. She sighed.

Suddenly, there was a knock on the door. “Come in.” Puan Kavita answered. I was a bit relieved that she got her eyes off me. Then, a woman came in. “A new teacher, perhaps..” I thought. She took a seat. The two women started a
conversation and I was feeling ignored.

“Rahman, why don’t you escort Ms. Nadiah to your class?”

Puan Kavita turned to me. The new teacher, Ms. Nadiah looked and smiled at me.

Soon, we were off to the class. She followed me from behind. There was a complete silence. When we arrived at the class, I went straight to my desk, not bothering about the new teacher. My classmates were curious about the new teacher. The class monitor, stood up followed by the rest to greet the teacher but I remained stubbornly seated.

Ms.Nadiah introduced herself to the class. She was friendly, smiling all the time
and always trying to give attention to everyone. All of my classmates were really
happy with this new teacher but I showed no interest.

As time passed by, I started to have some interest to study. Her teaching style was interesting and enlighting. She always enliven the class with some jokes when the lessons became bored. Soon, I realized that I have missed too many lesson in the past. It was hard for me to keep up with the others but Ms. Nadiah
always supported me and help me in my studies.

One day, she gave the class some exercises as a test. When she passed by me, she was surprised to see that I had done a perfect answer.

During recess, I bumped into Chong. We just waved to each other. Chong and I used to be close friends. But since he was promoted to a higher class, we seldom meet each other anymore and soon became quite departed.

When I passed the staff room, I overheard a conversation among a few teachers. I went nearer to listen more clearly when I heard them mentioning my name. Ms. Nadiah was among them and they were discussing about me.

“Oh, that boy! I taught him last year. He was not interested at all in his study. Always skipping classes.”

Mrs. Koo, my former English teacher was complaining about me.

“Poor boy, he hasn’t seen his parents for a long time.”

“Where are his parents?” Ms. Nadiah asked.

“They were busy people, always travelling regularly. They left him with his

Now, I could really felt that my teachers were sympatized and care about me. One thing that I learned at that moment was that teachers are really caring about their students.

“But I think Rahman has a potential to perform in his academics.”

I was surprised when Ms. Nadiah suddenly praised me. She took out the test paper that I did in class this morning and showed it to the other teachers. They were surprised to see that I answered the questions really well.

That was the first time that I felt so touched. My perceptions towards teacher all this while were wrong. I always thought teachers like to blame students. Teachers dislike those who did not do well in class.

The next day, after all what had happened yesterday, I felt that I have the strength to confide my problem to Ms. Nadiah. I went to see her after class. Before I could say anything, tears rolled down my cheeks. I asked her for an advice to cope with my lessons that I had missed too far behind. She told me not to worry and gave me some advices and guidance.

Since that day, I started to improve and keeping up with my lessons. I also became more respectful towards my teachers. As time passed by, UPSR examination were on. All the Year Six students sat for the examination which completed within five days.

A few months later, the UPSR results were released. That was a historical day for most Year Six students. When I checked my results which was pinned up on the school notice board, I was surprised. 5As! I looked upon at the teachers and smiled.

Suddenly, I heard a whispering voice. “Rahman, Rahman!” Raju was noticing me. Mrs. Rozita was about to leave the class. I quickly got up from my long recall memories. I commanded my classmates to stand up and we greeted,


Sunday, March 29, 2009

Fetal Development

1. By 7 days after fertilization, the embryo has over 10 cells arranged around a central cavity. This is the embryonic stage known as the blastocyst. Protruding into one end of the blastocyst cavity is a cluster of cells called the inner cell mass, which will subsequently develop into the embryo proper and some of the extraembyonic membranes. The outer epithelium surrounding the cavity is the trophoblast, which, along with mesodermal tissue, will form the fetal portion of the placenta. The embryo reaches the uterus by the blastocyst stage and soon begins to implant in the uterine lining (endometrium).
2. The trophoblast initiates implantation by secreting enzymes that enable the blastocyst to penetrate the endometrium. Bathed in blood spilled from eroded capillaries in the endometrium, the trophoblast thickens and extends fingerlike projections into the surrounding maternal tissue. (The placenta will later form from this proliferated trophoblast and the region it invades. Around the time of implantation, the inner cell mass of the blastocyst forms a falt disc with an upper layer cells, the epiblast, and the lower layer the hypoblast.
3. Now the extraembyonic membranes begin to develop . the trophoblast is iving rise to the corion and continues to expend into the endometrium. The epiblast has begun to form the amnion, surrounding a fluid-filled cavity. Mesodermal cells that will become part of the lacenta are also derived from the epiblast.
4. Grastulation occurs by the inward movement of cells from the epiblast through a primitive streak to form mesoderm and endoderm, just as it does in the chick. We now have a three-layered embryo surrounded by a proliferating extraembryonic mesoderm. Four extraembryonic membranes have formed. The chorion, which develops from the trophoblast, completely surrounds the embryo and the other extraembryonic membranes. The amnion begins as a dome above the proliferating epiblast and will eventually enclose the embryo in a fluid-filled amniotic cavity.below the developing embryo proper, the yolk sac encloses another fluid-filled cavity. The yolk sac membrane is a site of early formation of blood cells, which later migrate into the embryo proper. The fourth extraembryonic membrane, the allantois, develops as an outpocketing of the embryo’s rudimentary gut, as it does in the chick. The allantois is incorporated into the umbilical cord, where it forms blood vessels that transport oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the embryo and rid the embryo of carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste.

Sunday, March 1, 2009

The Secret of Charisma

Why do some people have an immediate and positive effect on us, while others inspire indifference or even aversion? Why do some people seem to be born under a lucky star while others spend their entire lives vegetating? Why are some people perpetually popular while others have no friends at all? Did you know that 80% of today's millionaires comes from middle or lower-class backgrounds?

We are astounded by the achievements of historical figures, or by our contemporaries - colleagues, friends or relatives - who exert such a powerful influence on people that as soon as they open their mouths everyone seems to listen with rapt attention, unwilling to miss anything they have to say.

These people possess an abundance of what is called charisma (derived from the Greek for 'divine grace'). To use a more material term, we could say that these people's personalities are 'magnetic'.

Charismatic persons seem to feel at ease wherever they go. They leave a trail of optimism and enthusiasm in their wake. They smile at you, and you forget about your problems and the dark clouds overhead. Their simple desire become your sacred commands.

Perhaps you've tried to study one of these people,to find out just what it is that makes them tick. And of course, you failed. Why?
Quite simply because there is no mystery at all! People with charisma make no special effort to attract attention, respect, friendship or love. They just carry on being themselves.

Charisma has nothing to do with physical attributes. It springs from the heart, from the soul and mind of a person, and not from the body. like all great powers, it is intangible.

To be cont'...

Friday, January 2, 2009

Donut Enak

Cara-cara membuatnya..simple je

1. beli sepeket yis di mana-mana kedai.. (xkesah lah jenama apa pn, yg penting belakang peket kne ada resipi donut)
2. baca resipi donut di belakang peket tersebut..
3. jangan percaya 100% dengan sukatan yg diberi.. adjust la yg mana patut..
4. uli doh dgn penuh kasih sayang..
5. biarkan doh mengembang dgn sihat dan gebu.. (lebih kurang 30min)
6. uli doh bentuk bebola kecil (diameter 3cm), boleh isi dgn jem, sekaya, peanut butter, coklat.. boleh buat lubang ditengah..
7. panaskan minyak dalam kuali.. biar betul2 panas..
8. lepaskan donut yg dah dibentuk ke dalam kuali satu demi satu.. deep fry sampai diorang jd kembang dan berwarna kekuningan..jangan lama sgt nnt hangit (xsmpai 30saat)
9. dry blend gula biasa smpai jadi debu..
10. golek2 donut yg baru goreng tadi dalam gula debu..
11. ambik bau.. hidang.. baca doa dan makan..

sennag kan?

(resipi utk 1 peket yis td selalunya boleh buat 20 biji donut) :p

Kisah Seorang Tua dan Budak Kecil

Ada seorang lelaki tua bertemu anak kecil ketika menyusuri sungai. Anak kecil itu sedang berwudhuk sambil menangis. Ketika ditanya, "Nak, mengapa engkau menangis?" Budak itu menjawab, "Wahai datuk, ketika aku membaca Al-Quran aku temukan firman Allah 'Wahai orang-orang beriman, jaglah diri kamu dan ahli keluargamu dari api neraka yang bahan bakarnya dari manusia dan batu..' (At-tahrim:6) Timbullah ketakutanku apabila dilemparkan ke dalam api neraka."

Lelaki tua itu berkata, "Wahai anakku, janganlah engkau takut, engkau tidak akan dicampakkan ke dalam neraka, sebab engkau belum baligh. Engkau belum layak untuk di masukkan ke dalam neraka." Anak kecil itu menjawab, "Engkaukan orang yang berakal, apakah engkau tidak tahu apabila seseorang hendak menyalakan api, ia akan memasukkan kayu bakar yang kecil dulu baru kemudian kayu bakar yang lebih besar.."

Mendengar kata-kata budak itu, menangislah lelaki tua tadi sambil berkata, "Sesungguhnya anak kecil ini lebih ingat kampung akhirat daripada diriku. Dunia telah jauh menyeretku."

(Al Buka Al Mabrur)

Kisah Imam Malik

Ibn Qasim seorang ulama' fiqh Mesir yg wafat tahun 191H mengisahkan, "Aku pernah mendatangi Imam Malik sebelum waktu fajar. Aku tanyakan dua masalah, tiga masalah atau empat masalah, dan aku melihatnya benar-benar dalam suasana lapang. Kemudian aku mendatanginya hampir setiap waktu sahur. Terkadang kerana lelah,mataku tertutup dan aku tertidur. Ketika Imam Malik keluar ke masjid aku tidak mengetahuinya. Kemudian aku dibangunkan oleh pembantunya seraya mengatakan, "Gurumu tidak tertidur seperti kamu. Padahal usianya telah mencapai empat puluh sembilan tahun. Setahu ku ia nyaris tidak shalat dengan wudhu' untuk shalat Isya'."

(Zero to Hero)